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DTaP immunization (vaccine)

 

Definition

DTaP immunization is a vaccine that protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough).

See also: Tdap vaccine

Information

The DTaP vaccine is highly effective for the prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis -- all of which are serious, and potentially deadly, diseases. It is given by a shot (injection), usually into the arm or thigh. The DTaP vaccine may be given as part of a combination vaccine, such as Pentacel (DTaP-Hib-IPV) or Pediarix (DTaP-HepB-IPV).

WHO SHOULD GET THIS VACCINE

DTaP vaccination is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. DTaP vaccine can be safely given to infants. Five DTaP vaccines are recommended. They are usually given to children at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years. DTaP immunization is generally required before a child can start school.

After the first series of immunizations, a Tdap vaccine should be given at around age 11 or 12, and every 10 years after that. This vaccine provides further protection against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis, and is used as a booster.

DTaP is recommended unless there is a reason that the child should not receive the pertussis vaccine (such as an allergic reaction), in which case a vaccine against diphtheria and tetanus (DT vaccine) only should be given.

RISKS AND SIDE EFFECTS

DTaP may cause the following mild side effects, which usually only last a few days:

  • Fever
  • Crankiness
  • Soreness at the injection site
  • Vomiting
  • Decreased appetite

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) may be used to treat common, minor side effects of fussiness, soreness, and fever after the immunization. However, there is some evidence that the use of acetaminophen before the immunization may reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine. A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad may also help to reduce soreness. Frequently moving or using the arm or leg that has received the injection is recommended and often reduces the soreness.

Moderate to serious reactions are uncommon. They may include:

  • Non-stop crying for more than 3 hours (1 in 1,000 children)
  • Fever over 105 degrees (1 in 16,000 children)
  • Seizures (1 in 14,000 children)

Severe reactions are extremely rare, but may include severe allergic reactions such as breathing difficulties and shock. Such reactions occur in less than 1 per 1,000,000 children. Long-term seizures and brain damage are so rare that the association with the vaccine is questionable.

Many parents worry that some vaccines are not safe and may harm their baby or young child. They may ask their doctor or nurse to wait, or even refuse to have the vaccine. However, it is important to also think about the risks of not having the vaccine. See: Immunizations - general overview for more information.

Usually, a child who has had a problem with the DTaP vaccine can safely receive the Td vaccine.

CONSIDERATIONS

If your child is sick with something more serious than a mild cold, DTaP may be delayed until he or she is better.

The DTaP vaccine is not recommended if the patient developed Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks of receiving a tetanus shot.

If your child has had any of the following reactions after an earlier DTaP vaccination, check with your health care provider before the child receives another one:

  • Seizures within 3 to 7 days after injection
  • A serious brain problem within 7 days after injection
  • Seizures that get worse
  • Other brain problem (at any time)
  • Mouth, throat, or face swelling within a few hours after the vaccine is given
  • Difficulty breathing (serious allergy) within a few hours after the vaccine is given
  • Fever of 105 degrees or higher within 2 days after the vaccine is given
  • Shock or collapse within 2 days after the vaccine is given
  • Persistent, uncontrolled crying that lasts for more than 3 hours at a time after the vaccine is given

CALL YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER IF:

  • You are not sure if your child should get the DTaP immunization
  • Complications or severe symptoms develop after DTaP immunization
  • Other symptoms develop after DTaP immunization
  • You have questions or concerns about DTaP immunization
References

Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommended Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedules -- United States, 2010.

Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons Aged 7–18 Years--United States, 2008. MMWR. October 19, 2007 / 56(41);Q1-Q4.

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2010. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:36-39.


Review Date: 1/25/2010
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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